Built in 1601 under the direction of the Württemberg architect Heinrich Schickhardt, this building embodies the particularity of the Pays de Montbéliard: an island of Lutheran Protestantism, French-speaking, governed for more than four centuries by a German dynasty, the Württemberg family.
In its time, the construction of the temple crowned the religious policy of Prince Frederick, Duke of Württemberg, marking the triumph of Lutheranism.
In addition to its architectural qualities, its coffered ceiling, organ and spiral staircase are not to be missed.
The reproduction of the Montbéliard Altarpiece (Mömpelgarder Altar) is on display in the St. Martin's Church.
At the request of the Count of Montbéliard, George I*, the painter Heinrich Füllmaurer, from Herrenberg in Württemberg, created a large altarpiece around 1540. The altarpiece consists of a central section and six side panels that fold down on top of each other. It is a remarkable collection of 157 painted panels, transforming the altarpiece into a sort of illustrated New Testament.
In the second half of the 16th century, the work was transferred to Stuttgart. In 1617, it was first mentioned in the texts as the Mömpelgarder Altar, thus originating from Montbéliard, and was then kept in the prince's collections.
In 1634, during the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, the altarpiece was taken to Vienna in Austria as war booty and became one of the jewels of the Habsburg painting collection. It is now in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.